Best Frigate Designs

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Indian’s Navy Frigate Design

Shivalik class frigate

File:Shivalik Maiden Sortie.jpg

INS Shivalik during trials

Type: Guided-missile frigate
Displacement: 5600 tons standard
6200 tons full load [2][3]
Length: 142.5 m (468 ft)[4]
Beam: 16.9 m (55 ft)
Draught: 4.5 m (15 ft)
Propulsion: 2 x Pielstick 16 PA6 STC Diesel engines & 2 x GE LM2500+ boost turbines in CODOG configuration.
Speed: 32 knots (59 km/h)[5]
22 knots (41 km/h) (Diesel Engines)
Complement: 257 (35 officers)
Sensors and
processing systems:
1 x MR-760 Fregat M2EM 3-D radar
4 x MR-90 Orekh radar
1 x ELTA EL/M 2238 STAR
2 x ELTA EL/M 2221 STGR
1 x BEL APARNA
HUMSA (Hull Mounted Sonar Array)
ATAS/Thales Sintra towed array systems
Electronic warfare
and decoys:
BEL Ajanta electronic warfare suite
Armament: OTO Melara 76mm SRGM
2 x AK-630 30mm guns
32 x Barak SAM[6]
9M317 (SA-N-12) SAM,total of 24 missiles
8 x Klub cruise Missiles[7]
90R missiles (ASW)
DTA-53-956 torpedoes
Klub ASW Missile
2x RBU-6000 (RPK-8)
Aircraft carried: 2 x HAL Dhruv or Sea King Mk.42B

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US Navy Frigate Design

USS Lassen (DDG-82)

File:Guided missile destroyer USS Lassen (DDG 82).jpg

USS Lassen underway in the rough seas of the East China Sea

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File:USS Lassen in drydock.jpg

USS Lassen in drydock in Yokosuka, with the sonar dome visible, January 2007

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Class and type: Arleigh Burke class destroyer
Displacement: 9,200 tons
Length: 509 ft 6 in (155.30 m)
Beam:   66 ft (20 m)
Draft:   31 ft (9.4 m)
Propulsion: 4 × General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines, 2 shafts, 100,000 shp (75 MW)
Speed: 30+ knots (55+ km/h)
Complement: 320 officers and enlisted
Armament: 1 × 32 cell, 1 × 64 cell Mk 41 vertical launch systems, 96 × RIM-66 SM-2, BGM-109 Tomahawk or RUM-139 VL-Asroc, missiles
1 × 5″/62 (127mm/62), 2 × 25 mm, 4 × 12.7 mm guns, 2 × Phalanx CIWS
2 × Mk 32 triple torpedo tubes[1]
Aircraft carried: 2 × SH-60 Sea Hawk helicopters

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King Sejong the Great class destroyer

File:ROKS Sejong the Great (DDG 991).jpg

ROKS Sejong the Great (DDG 991) during the 2008 Busan International Fleet Review

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http://www.jeffhead.com//aegisvesselsoftheworld/sejong.htm

http://www.sinodefenceforum.com/world-armed-forces/king-sejong-great-class-destroyer-5506.html

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Class and type: Sejong the Great class destroyers
Displacement: 8,500 tons standard displacement
11,000 tons full load
Length: 165.9 m
Beam: 21.4 m
Draft: 6.25 m
Propulsion: 4 General Electric LM2500 COGAG;
two shafts,
100,000 total shaft horsepower (75 MW)
Speed: 30+ knots (56+ km/h)
Range: 5,500 nautical miles (10,200 km)
Complement: 300-400 crew members
Sensors and
processing systems:
  • AN/SPY-1D(V) multi-function radar
  • AN/SPG-62 fire control radar
  • DSQS-21BZ hull mounted sonar
  • MTeQ towed array sonar system
Electronic warfare
and decoys:
LIG Nex1 SLQ-200K Sonata electronic warfare suite[1]
Armament:
Aircraft carried: • Hangar for two Super Lynx or SH-60 Seahawk, one more on landing pad

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British Navy

HMS Northumberland (F238)

File:HMS Northumberland.jpg

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File:Northumberland Naval Gun.jpg

Northumberland’s 4.5 inch Mk 8 Mod 1 “Kryten” naval gun designed to reduce radar cross section

Class and type: ‘Duke’-class Type 23 frigate
Displacement: 4,900 tonnes
Length: 133 m (463 ft 3 in)
Beam: 16.1 m (52 ft 10 in)
Draught: 7.4 m (24.3 ft)
Propulsion: CODLAG (Combined Diesel-eLectric And Gas)
2 × Rolls-Royce Spey boost gas-turbines
4 × Paxman Valenta diesel engines
2 × GEC electric motors
Speed: 28 knots (52 km/h)
15 knots (28 km/h) on diesel-electric
Range: 7,800 nautical miles (14,400 km) at 15 knots (28 km/h)
Complement: 185
Armament:
Aircraft carried:
  • 1 x Lynx HMA.Mk3/8 or Merlin HM.Mk 1 helicopter.

Armed with anti submarine and ship missiles and torpedoes

File:HMS Somerset (F82).jpg

Type 23-Frigate

Class and type: Frigate
Displacement: 4,900 tonnes[1]
Length: 133 m (436 ft 4 in)[1][2]
Beam: 16.1 m (52 ft 10 in)[1][2]
Draught: 5 m (16 ft 5 in)[3]
18 ft (5.5 m) screws[2]
24 ft (7.3 m) sonar[2]
Propulsion: CODLAG with four 1510 kW (2,025 shp) Paxman Valenta 12CM diesel generators powering two GEC electric motors delivering 2980kW (4000 shp) and two Rolls-Royce Spey SM1A delivering 23,190 kW (31,100 shp) to two shafts
Speed: 28 knots HMS Sutherland achieved 34.4 knots during high-speed trials (November 2008)
Range: 14,485 km (9,000 miles) at 15 knots
Complement: 185[1] or 181 (13 officers)[2]
Armament: Anti-air missiles;
Sea Wolf GWS.26 VLSwith a total of 32 anti-air missiles.Anti-ship missiles;
2 x quadruple Harpoonlaunchers for 8 anti-ship missiles.Anti-submarine torpedoes;
2 x twin 12.75 in (324 mm) tubes for Stingray ASW torpedoes. A total of 24 torpedoes.[4]Guns;
1 x 4.5-inch Mk 8 DP gun
2 x 30mm DS30M Mk 2 systems or 30mm DS30B
2 x M 232 Mk 44 7.62mm miniguns
4 x 7.62 GPMGsDecoys;
4 x 6-barrel Seagnatdecoy launchersDFL2/3 offboard decoys
Aircraft carried: 1 x Lynx HMA8 or Merlin HM1helicopter Armed with

  • anti-submarine torpedoes
  • anti-shipControllable pitch propellers (CPP) for marine propulsion systems have been designed to give the highest propulsive efficiency over a broad range of speeds and load conditions. When the vessel is fully loaded with cargo the propulsion required at a given ship speed is much higher than when the vessel is empty. By adjusting the blade pitch, the optimum efficiency can be obtained and fuel can be saved. Also, the controllable pitch propeller has a “vane”-stance, which is useful with combined sailing / motor vessels as this stance gives the least water resistance when not using the propeller (e.g. when the sails are used instead).A fixed pitch propeller (FPP) is more efficient than a controllable pitch propeller under a specificrotational speed and load condition. At that particular rotational speed and load, a FPP can transmit power more efficiently than a CPP. At any other rotational speed, or any other vessel loading, the FPP will not be more efficient, either being over pitched or under pitched. A correctly sized controllable pitch propeller can be efficient for a wide range of rotational speeds, since pitch can be adjusted to absorb all the power that the engine is capable of producing at nearly any rotational speed.The CPP also improves maneuverability of a vessel. When maneuvering the vessel the advantage of the CPP is the fast change of propulsion direction. The direction of thrust can be changed without slowing down the propeller and depending on the size of the CPP can be changed in approximately 15 to 40 seconds. The increased maneuverability can eliminate the need for docking tugswhile berthing.A reversing gear or a reversible engine is not necessary for ships utilizing CPP, saving money to install and service these components. Depending on the main engine rotational speed and the size of the CPP, a reduction gear may still be required. A CPP does require a hydraulic system to control the position of the blades. A CPP does not produce more or less wear or stress on the propeller shaftor propulsion engine than an FPP. Therefore this will not be an argument to choose between an FPP or a CPP.Large vessels that make long trips at a constant service speed, for example crude oil tankers or the largest container ships, do not utilize a CPP, since the amount of power generated exceeds the current CPP design capabilities. A CPP is usually found on harbor or ocean-going tugs, dredgers, cruise ships, ferries, cargo vessels and larger fishing vessels that sail to ports with limited or no tug assistance. Prior to the development of CPPs, some vessels would alternate between “speed wheel” and “power wheel” propellers depending on the task.Current CPP designs can tolerate a maximum output of 44000 kW (60,000 hp).

    Bruntons, an engineering firm in Essex, has patented the “AutoProp”, a marine propeller where the blades swivel freely and automatically set to the correct angle. The Autoprop is suitable for small to medium yachts and boats, and is particularly beneficial for motor-sailers. [7]

    missiles

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Controllable pitch propellers (CPP)

A ship’s controllable pitch propeller

Controllable pitch propellers (CPP) for marine propulsion systems have been designed to give the highest propulsive efficiency over a broad range of speeds and load conditions. When the vessel is fully loaded with cargo the propulsion required at a given ship speed is much higher than when the vessel is empty. By adjusting the blade pitch, the optimum efficiency can be obtained and fuel can be saved. Also, the controllable pitch propeller has a “vane”-stance, which is useful with combined sailing / motor vessels as this stance gives the least water resistance when not using the propeller (e.g. when the sails are used instead).

A fixed pitch propeller (FPP) is more efficient than a controllable pitch propeller under a specific rotational speed and load condition. At that particular rotational speed and load, a FPP can transmit power more efficiently than a CPP. At any other rotational speed, or any other vessel loading, the FPP will not be more efficient, either being over pitched or under pitched. A correctly sized controllable pitch propeller can be efficient for a wide range of rotational speeds, since pitch can be adjusted to absorb all the power that the engine is capable of producing at nearly any rotational speed.

The CPP also improves maneuverability of a vessel. When maneuvering the vessel the advantage of the CPP is the fast change of propulsion direction. The direction of thrust can be changed without slowing down the propeller and depending on the size of the CPP can be changed in approximately 15 to 40 seconds. The increased maneuverability can eliminate the need for docking tugs while berthing.

A reversing gear or a reversible engine is not necessary for ships utilizing CPP, saving money to install and service these components. Depending on the main engine rotational speed and the size of the CPP, a reduction gear may still be required. A CPP does require a hydraulic system to control the position of the blades. A CPP does not produce more or less wear or stress on the propeller shaft or propulsion engine than an FPP. Therefore this will not be an argument to choose between an FPP or a CPP.

Large vessels that make long trips at a constant service speed, for example crude oil tankers or the largest container ships, do not utilize a CPP, since the amount of power generated exceeds the current CPP design capabilities. A CPP is usually found on harbor or ocean-going tugs, dredgers, cruise ships, ferries, cargo vessels and larger fishing vessels that sail to ports with limited or no tug assistance. Prior to the development of CPPs, some vessels would alternate between “speed wheel” and “power wheel” propellers depending on the task.

Current CPP designs can tolerate a maximum output of 44000 kW (60,000 hp).

Bruntons, an engineering firm in Essex, has patented the “AutoProp”, a marine propeller where the blades swivel freely and automatically set to the correct angle. The Autoprop is suitable for small to medium yachts and boats, and is particularly beneficial for motor-sailers. [7]

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Turkish Navy

MEKO 200

File:F-247 TCG Kemal Reis.jpg

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File:MEKO 200 TN.jpg

Four Turkish MEKO 200 in Formation

Type: Frigate
Displacement: 3,400 tons (full load)
Length: 118 m (387 ft)
Beam: 14.8 m (49 ft)
Draught: 4.3 m (14 ft)
Propulsion: 1 × General Electric LM2500+ gas turbine and 2 × MTU 12V1163 TB83 diesel engines, driving two shafts with controllable pitch propellers in CODOG configuration.
Speed: 32 knots (59 km/h)
Range: 6,000 nautical miles (11,000 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h)
Complement: 220
Sensors and
processing systems:
Sonars: Thomson Sintra Spherion B Mod 5; hull-mounted; active search and attack; medium frequency. Provision for towed array
Air search radar: Raytheon AN/SPS-49(V)8 ANZ (C/D-band)
Surface search radar: CelsiusTech 9LV 453 TIR (Ericsson Tx/Rx) (G-band)
Navigation: Atlas Elektronik 9600 ARPA (I-band)
Electronic warfare
and decoys:
ESM: Racal modified Sceptre A (radar intercept), Telefunken PST-1720 Telegon 10 (comms intercept)
Countermeasures: Decoys: G & D Aircraft SRBOC Mk-36 Mod 1 decoy launchers for SRBOC
Armament: Guns:

Missiles:

Torpedoes:

Fire control: CelsiusTech 9LV 453 (J-band)
Combat data systems: CelsiusTech 9LV 453 Mk-3 Link 11

Weapons control: CelsiusTech 9LV 453 optronic director with Raytheon CW Mk-73 Mod 1

Aircraft carried: 1 x S-70B Seahawk or
1 x SH-2G Super Seasprite

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File:HMZS Te-Mana 2008.jpg

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Conclusion:  The Indian Navy’s Shivalik Frigate has the best design.

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